International Trade


International Trade Research GroupA key framework for analysis used in this research is the use a comparative approach, identifying what are the written policies and rules as opposed to what are the normative practices in the resolution of any given kind of dispute. How close are the normative practices in relation to the stated rules? Answers to this question will vary, not only between the international trade and human rights arenas but also within each of their own different practice issues and across the different countries. The International Trade Research Group will specifically study and analyse the areas of (a) Transparency, (b) Subsidies, (c) (Anti)-dumping, (d) National Treatment, and (e) Intellectual Property (IP). Clearly, these issues are in many ways intricately linked so a closer study of each of them in their own rights will hopefully yield an even deeper understanding of how they are tied to one another. The table below lists some of the norms and practice topics that we will study.


Practice Area
National Treatment
Intellectual Property
(Selected) Normative Issues
  • Access to information
  • Government Accountability
  • Redress & remdedies
  • Roles of State & market in setting production costs & prices
  • Fair trade
  • Proper calculus for cost of production
  • Appropriate competition
  • Goals of business (de)regulation
  • Equality in treatment of local and foreign businesses
  • Identity of foreign and local businesses
  • Meaning of IP
  • Costs / pricing of IP
  • Value / origins of ideas
  • Value / origins of property
  • Appropriate competition


The International Trade Research Group is chaired by Ljljiana Biukovic and comprises of these lead researchers: Pitman Potter, Jim Nafziger, Robert Paterson, Sarah Biddulph, and Yasunobu Sato.


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